11.4 Reproduction (HL)

Assessing risks and benefits associated with scientific research—the risks to human male fertility were not adequately assessed before steroids related to progesterone and estrogen were released into the environment as a result of the use of the female contraceptive pill.

There are a lot of myths surrounding the environmental effects of the contraceptive pill, despite the fact that it is one of the most widely-taken and best studied drugs in use. According to the ARHP, more than 13 million American women use the pill and there is over 50 years of data on its safety and effectiveness (Moore et al.).

Concerns have been raised that the additional estrogen, largely a synthetic estrogen called Ethinyl Estradiol, being released into the environment through usage of the pill has resulted in elevated rates of these hormones in drinking water.  As steroid hormones, these are known as Endocrine Disruptive Chemicals (EDCs) – chemicals that could alter the hormonal balance and control of organism’ physiology (Moore et. al.) Clearly then, there are legitimate concerns for the health impacts of any chemical that can disrupt an animal (or person’s) endocrine system.  The increase in male infertility as well as the recorded feminisation of some species of fish over this time period has amplified this issue. But is the contraceptive pill a significant part of this problem?

A comprehensive review (Wise et al.) examined this statement and found that the contraceptive pill is a negligible cause of any synthetic estrogens in waterways. It does highlight the role of agriculture and industry as sources of EDCs; for example, it points out that the amount of synthetic estrogen given to livestock in the US is five times greater than that consumed by all the women on the pill (Wise et. al.)

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Sources of endocrine-disrupting compounds in the water supply (Moore et al.)

Returning to the statement in the Nature of Science, there remains the issue of whether the risks were properly considered before the widespread use of these drugs and thus whether a full ethical review was conducted.  However, the link between estrogen compounds in the environment and the pill seem tenuous at best and it is other sources of steroid-based hormones that need to be addressed.

Sources:

Moore, K. et al. Birth Control Hormones In Water: Separating Myth From Fact. arhp.org. 2011. Web. Mar 30, 2016.

Wise A, O’Brien K, Woodruff T. Critical review: are oral contraceptives a significant contributor to the estrogenicity of drinking water?. Environ Sci Tech. 2011;1:51–60

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